In October 2011, Sonora State added the “right to connectivity” to the first article of the state Constitution, along with the right to liberty, education, and housing. They were the first Mexican state to adopt such a right, and one of only three states in the world. Â People are still writing about it today as an example of how to provide effective access to knowledge – as debates unfold over how to keep the Internet open.
La iniciativa que adiciona un pÃ¡rrafo segundo al ArtÃculo 1Â° de la ConstituciÃ³n PolÃtica del Estado de Sonora fue promovida por los diputados Enrique Reina LizÃ¡rraga y Gorgonia Rosas LÃ³pez, a fin de transformar el acceso a Internet en un derecho o garantÃa de la ley fundamental local.
â€œEs decir, que el Estado deberÃ¡ garantizar el acceso a la conectividad de redes digitales de informaciÃ³n y de comunicaciÃ³n dentro del territorio sonorense a todos sus ciudadanos, pues este tipo de servicios cada dÃa han logrado convertirse en un factor indispensable de cualquier ciudadano.â€
The initiative, which adds a second paragraph to Article 1 of the Constitution of the State of Sonora, was promoted by representatives Enrique Reina Lizarraga and Gorgonia Rosas LÃ³pez, to transform Internet access into a fundamental right or guarantee of the local law.
“This means that the State must guarantee access to digital information and communication networks within the Sonoran territory, to all its citizens, because daily access to such a service has become indispensable for any citizen.“
Kudos again to Sonora for their farsighted planning. Â They not only support free software as a foundation for learning, but Â have recognized connectivity as infrastructure for modern life, and not a luxury.
FundaciÃ³n Zamora TerÃ¡n recently expanded the work of OLPC Nicaragua to include the community on the beautiful and legendary Ometepe, an island formed by the two volcanoes rising out of Lake Nicaragua.
Teachers play a key role in the use of the XO laptop, incorporating it into daily planning and classroom activities. Maria Josefina TerÃ¡n Zamora, its founder, said of their new island initiative:
â€œDuring the past two years, weâ€™ve been working hard to ensure that our OLPC project is one of the best in the world and delivers the maximum benefit to our children. Today we are very happy to include the children of Ometepe and connect them to the rest of Nicaragua and to the world.â€
The FundaciÃ³n coordinates and executes XO purchase logistics and installation and provides a high level of technical support. A pedagogical training plan has been developed with the support of a qualified educational team that facilitates the integration of the XO into the existing Ministry of Elementary School Education Curriculum. Schools participating in the OLPC project must meet specific selection criteria.
The Ometepe initiative has been supported particularly by contribution from the LAFISE-BANCENTRO Bank, and brings to 25,000 the number of XOs distributed to children in schools across the country.
Argentina’s Conectar Igualdad program, which will provide 3M laptops to secondary students across the country by the end of next year, has devoted much time to their web presence. Â (The secondary students receive Classmates; 60K primary students in the north have also recieved XOs.) The national education ministry has a history of excellent web sites, including educ.ar, which has gathered learning materials and information for teachers for years.
Conectar Igualdad has, among other things, a lovely real-time summary of the program’s progress, noting the current targets or the deployment and how it has progressed during the current phase in each district.
They are also open about the experimental nature of their work. Â They have asked students and communities to come up with great ideas and local initiatives using the laptops and other information technology, running a variety of contestsÂ to select the best of them. Â The aim of these contests is to highlight the dynamic of “one laptop per child” and universal connectivity, connect with web 2.0 services, and to collaborate with others in a creative way.
Niue, a small island nation in the Pacific, became the first country to provide one laptop per child, over two years ago. At the time, OLPC Oceania was just taking shape; since then, another 8000 children and teachers have implemented programs across the Pacific.
Last week Niue’s acting Director of Education, Lisimoni Togahai, said that although the first two years went well, they were phasing out the program. “The school could not afford to pay for the high cost of maintaining the V-SAT thatâ€™s connected to the satellite for the internet access.”
Niue supported child ownership, and children there take their laptops home and keep them when they graduate. About half of the 500 XOs deployed belong to students who are still in the school system. While schools may be phasing out their subsidized connectivity, the children can use their XOs elsewhere. The country has abundant free wifi – it was touted as the first “Wifi nation” in 2003 for the availability of wifi in all of its cities.
Michael Hutak, coordinator for OLPC Oceania, has been in touch with them hoping for further background. He recently posted a summary of lessons learned so far from Pacific pilots. An excerpt:
* There is country-level demand and political and community support for OLPC in the Pacific;
* Small pilots provide an insufficient evidence base for policy makers;
* Monitoring & Evaluation should be integrated at the outset of an OLPC programme;
* Broad-based regional technical assistance is needed to aid country capacity building;
* Laptops and hardware peripherals should be centrally maintained in the region to efficiently support trials;
* There is suppressed demand for internet connectivity in rural and remote schools.
Caritas Kanizio of Rwanda’s Education MinistryÂ distributed 500 XOs to students and teachers in Ruli Primary school in Muhanga this week. Â This is part of an expansion of Rwanda’s OLPC project to rural schools, which has taken some time to develop but has been in ways the most rewarding part. Â It has helped bridge the connectivity and technology divide within the country.
Rwanda has positioned itself as a tech-savvy hub in East Africa for some time, but rural towns have had very limited access to computers. Â Parents generally hope to learn about computers through their children, and the program is seen as heralding better Internet connectivity for the communities as well.
The African Union [AU] and One Laptop per Child today signed a Memorandum of Understanding in which they commit to provide laptops to primary school students throughout Africa. Â Matthew Keller, OLPC’s Vice President of Global Advocacy, and Lidet Tilahun, Vice President of International Outreach, were presentÂ for the signing at AU’s Headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
The AU has committed itself to work with OLPC in developing large-scale laptop projects, and to work with OLPC on seeking funding from prospective donors as well as recipient countries for these projects. OLPC and the AU will work together to leverage the advantages of the XO laptop and its award-winning Sugaroperating system in transforming primary school education, and to promote strategies for better access to laptops and connectivity.
“OLPCâ€™s partnership with the African Union represents another significant step toward a world in which every child has access to a world-class education, to the world’s body of knowledge, and to each other,â€ said Keller. â€œThe African Union is dedicating itself not simply to One Laptop per Child, but to a world in which the children become agents of change â€“ making things, teaching each other and their families and affecting the social development of their community.â€
Commissioner Jean-Pierre Ezin, the AU Commissioner for Science and Technology, said, â€œGetting connected laptops filled with dynamic educational content into the hands of children throughout Africa will change the way this generation of children thinks and learns. The AU is eager to realize what could be a profound development as a result of advanced technology in the way learning happens both in and out of school, the way that books are read, and the way that education happens inside a classroom. This is a very ambitious project for which we will have to partner with various people and institutions to mobilize and find the resources required to meet the objective of educational transformation.â€